John Dunmore Lang
John Dunmore Lang (1799-1878), a turbulent Presbyterian clergyman from Scotland, called for education and free immigration to improve morality in New South Wales. In 1850 he founded the Australian League to encourage national identity, resist convict transportation and promote a federal republic. He did much to achieve separation for Victoria and Queensland and the introduction of responsible and democratic government. Courtesy Australian Dictionary of Biography
NSW Constitutional Association
The NSW Constitutional Association is formed by radical patriots, including Henry Parkes, to agitate for extension of the franchise and land reform. In his first public speech, made at the City Theatre in January 1849, Parkes advocates universal suffrage as the best guarantee that the people, growing in enlightenment, would avoid the excesses of Paris and Frankfurt. His radicalism reaches a high point in April 1850 when John Dunmore Lang and James Wilshire establish the Australian League to work for universal suffrage and transformation of the Australian colonies into a Great Federal Republic.
John Dunmore Lang’s republicanism
In a series of lectures in Sydney, John Dunmore Lang promotes republicanism, including the end of convict transportation, and independence and federation for the Australian colonies. He promotes his ideas in The Coming Event; Or, the United Provinces of Australia published in 1850, and Freedom and Independence for the Golden Lands of Australia published in 1852.
The Australian League
John Dunmore Lang, with aid from Henry Parkes, James Wilshire and other radicals, establishes the Australian League to encourage a sense of national identity, to resist any further convict transportation and to promote, by moral means exclusively, the entire freedom of the Australian colonies and their incorporation into one political federation. The League collapses after two meetings.